Saturday, April 1, 2017

The most complex Shanghainese Romanization!




James Summers (1828-1891) was a British scholar of English literature. In 1852, Summers became professor of Chinese language of King's College London in the University of London at the age of 25. Below is the In 1853, he translated the Gospel of John into Romanized Shanghainese
The Shanghainese Romanization used by Summers consisted of the following diacritic combinations:

1. Letters with breve accent: ǎ ǐ ǔ ě ǒ ž Ă Ĭ Ŭ Ĕ Ŏ Ž
2. Letters with macron accent: ā ī ū ē ō z̄ Ā Ī Ū Ē Ō Z̄
3. Letters with acute accent: á í ú é ó ź Á Í Ú É Ó Ź
4. Letters with grave accent: à ì ù è ò z̀ À Ì Ù È Ò Z̀
5. Letters with the circumflex: â î û ê ô ẑ Â Î Û Ê Ô Ẑ
6. Superscript: ⁿ, ᵒᵒ

7. Letters with dot above: ȧ i̇ u̇ ė ȯ ż Ȧ İ  U̇ Ė Ȯ Ż
8. Letters with breve and dot above: a̐ i̐ u̐ e̐ o̐ z̐ A̐ I̐ U̐ E̐ O̐ Z̐
9. Letters with acute and dot above: ȧ́ i̇́ u̇́ ė́ ȯ́ ż́ Ȧ́ İ́ U̇́ Ė́ Ȯ́ Ż́
10. Letters with grave and dot above: à̇ ì̇ ù̇ è̇ ò̇ z̀̇ À̇ Ì̇ Ù̇ È̇ Ò̇ Z̀̇

11. Letters with dot below: ạ  ị ụ ẹ ọ ẓ Ạ Ị Ụ Ẹ Ọ Ẓ
12. Letters with breve above and dot below: ặ ị̆ ụ̆ ẹ̆ ọ̆ ẓ̆ Ặ Ị̆ Ụ̆ Ẹ̆ Ọ̆ Ẓ̆
13. Letters with macron above and dot below: ạ̄ ị̄ ụ̄ ẹ̄ ọ̄ ẓ̄ Ạ̄ Ị̄ Ụ̄ Ẹ̄ Ọ̄ Ẓ̄
14. Letters with acute accent above and dot below: ạ́  ị́ ụ́ ẹ́ ọ́ ẓ́ Ạ́ Ị́ Ụ́ Ẹ́ Ọ́ Ẓ́
15. Letters with grave accent above and dot below: ạ̀ ị̀ ụ̀ ẹ̀ ọ̀ ẓ̀ Ạ̀ Ị̀ Ụ̀ Ẹ̀ Ọ̀ Ẓ̀
16. Letters with circumflex above and dot below: ậ ị̂ ụ̂ ệ ộ ẓ̂ Ậ Ị̂ Ụ̂ Ệ Ộ Ẓ̂
17. Letters with acute accent and dot both above & below: ạ́̇  ị́̇ ụ́̇ ẹ́̇ ọ́̇ ẓ́̇ Ạ́̇ Ị́̇ Ụ́̇ Ẹ́̇ Ọ́̇ Ẓ́̇
18. Letters with grave accent and dot both above & below: ạ̀̇ ị̀̇ ụ̀̇ ẹ̀̇ ọ̀̇ ẓ̀̇ Ạ̀̇ Ị̀̇ Ụ̀̇ Ẹ̀̇ Ọ̀̇ Ẓ̀̇

19. Letters with diaeresis above: ä ï ü ë ö z̈ Ä Ï Ü Ë Ö Z̈
20. Letters with diaeresis and breve above: ä̆ ï̆ ü̆ ë̆ ö̆ z̈̆ Ä̆ Ï̆ Ü̆ Ë̆ Ö̆ Z̈̆
21. Letters with diaeresis and macron: ǟ ï̄ ǖ ë̄ ȫ z̈̄ Ǟ Ï̄ Ǖ Ë̄ Ȫ Z̈̄
22. Letters with diaeresis and acute above: ä́ ḯ ǘ ë́ ö́ z̈́ Ä́ Ḯ Ǘ Ë́ Ö́ Z̈́
23. Letters with diaeresis and grave above:ä̀ ï̀ ǜ ë̀ ö̀ z̈̀ Ä̀ Ï̀ Ǜ Ë̀ Ö̀ Z̈̀
24. Letters with diaeresis and circumflex above:ä̂ ï̂ ü̂ ë̂ ö̂ z̈̂ Ä̂ Ï̂ Ü̂ Ë̂ Ö̂ Z̈̂

25. Letters with diaeresis, acute and dot above: ä́̇ ḯ̇ ǘ̇ ë́̇ ö́̇ z̈́̇ Ä́̇ Ḯ̇ Ǘ̇ Ë́̇ Ö́̇ Z̈́̇
26. Letters with diaeresis, grave and dot above: ä̀̇ ï̀̇ ǜ̇ ë̀̇ ö̀̇ z̈̀̇ Ä̀̇ Ï̀̇ Ǜ̇ Ë̀̇ Ö̀̇ Z̈̀̇

Here are some sample sentences:

In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
K‘āⁿ-chì-sz̀ yạ̀̇-la kạ́ wȯ́-dạ, tí-kạ wȯ́-dạ t‘ǐ Zậng lià̇ng-ka yǐ-dọ́ kạ́-lọ̆, wȯ́-dạ mě, sż́ Zậng tsě-na.

He was with God in the beginning.
Tí-kạ wȯ́-dạ lě-la k‘āⁿ-chì-sz̀ t‘ǐ Zậng yǐ-dọ́ kạ.

Through him all things were made; without him nothing was made that has been made.
Yȧ́ng-yȧ́ng mě-ż́ zêⁿ kọ́-t‘ọ̆ tsz̀ wȯ́-dạ lọ̆, tǎ-dza̐ sọ́-zêng-kūng kạ, m̂ mě wȯ́-dạ mě, yǐ yȧ́ng mě-ż́ fě yạ̀̇-kạ tse

In him was life, and that life was the light of all mankind.
Lě-la kạ́ wȯ́-dạ mě, sż́ wě-mi̇́ng-kạ, ạ́̇rh-tsì tí-kạ wě-mi̇́ng kạ mě, sż́ ssź-kā-lọ̀ng nyậng ka lià̇ng-kwōng ya.

The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
Tí-kạ lià̇ng-kwōng sż́ tsọ́-kạ èⁿ-dûng lì̇-híang kạ, tǔ-ż́ èn-dûng lì̇-híang kạ mě fě h‘yọ̀ tǎ kạ ya.

There was a man sent from God whose name was John.
Yạ́̇ yǐ-kạ nyậng Zậng tàng-ǎ ī lê-kạ́, mîng-dạ kyọ̄ Yǎ-höⁿ.

He came as a witness to testify concerning that light, so that through him all might believe.
Kạ́-kạ nyậng lê, tsọ́ tí-kạ lià̇ng-kwōng kạ kȫⁿ-tséng. Kyọ̄ tsu̇́ng nyậng siāng-síng kạ́ lià̇ng-kwōng.

He himself was not the light; he came only as a witness to the light.
Yǎ-höⁿ mě fě-ż́ tí-kạ lià̇ng-kwōng, sż́ lià̇ng-kwōng kạ kȫⁿ-tséng tse-na.

The true light that gives light to everyone was coming into the world.
Tsēng-kạ lià̇ng-kwōng mě, tsọ́-lià̇ng ssź-kā-lọ̀ng fě-chü-sà ch‘ặ-ssź kạ́ nyậng ya.

He was in the world, and though the world was made through him, the world did not recognize him.
Iī mě sọ́-zêng-kūng ssź-kā-lọ̀ng kạ lọ̆, yà̇ tọ́-kú ssź-kā-lọ̀ng lê-kạ́, tǔ-ż́ ssź-kā-lọ̀ng kạ́ nyậng fě-nyi̇́ng tǎ ī lǒ ya.

He came to that which was his own, but his own did not receive him.
Iī tó ssź-kā kạ nyậng hà̇n-dậ lê, ssź-kā kạ nyậng mě fě nyi̇́ng-tsǐ ī.

Yet to all who did receive him, to those who believed in his name, he gave the right to become children of God.
Nyi̇́ng-tsǐ ī kạ nyậng mě siậ-sż́ siāng-síng ī kạ mîng-dạ kạ nyậng, sż́ ī pě ī-la kạ́ k‘öⁿ-pîng lọ̆, tsó Zậng-kạ́ ậrh-tsz̀.

Now this was John’s testimony when the Jewish leaders in Jerusalem sent priests and Levites to ask him who he was.
Yǎ-höⁿ tsọ́-tsz̀ kȫⁿ-tséng, sż́ sě-ké yà̇ , Yạ̀̇-t’á nyậng tàng-fǎ tsi̇́-sź tǎ-tsz̀ Lì̇-ví yǐ-pá-lòng kạ́-nyậng, tàng Yâ-loò̇-sǎ-làng ti̇́-fōng lòng tsậ-lê; mạ́̇ng-mạ́ng Yǎ-höⁿ wȯ́, nùng sż́ sā nyậng ya?

He did not fail to confess, but confessed freely, “I am not the Messiah.”
Yǎ-höⁿ siậ nyi̇́ng lọ̆ fě tė́-dậ, sż́ nyi̇́ng “ngò̇  fě-ż́  Kī-tǔ”.

They asked him, “Then who are you? Are you Elijah?”
Iī-lá mạ́̇ng ī, kė́-mě sà nyậng ya, nùng sż́  Iī-lì̇-ā và?

He said, “I am not.”
Yǎ-höⁿ wȯ́,  “ngò̇  fě-ż́.

“Are you the Prophet?”He answered, “No.”
“Nùng sż́ ī-kạ́ yü̂-sīn-h‘iọ̀-tǎ kạ́ nyậng và?” Yǎ-höⁿ wė́-dậ “fě-ż́.”

Finally they said, “Who are you? Give us an answer to take back to those who sent us. What do you say about yourself?”
Iī-lá i̇́  wȯ́, “nùng sż́ sà nyậng yà̇? ngò̇-nī họ̀ chí wė́-dậ tàng-fǎ ngò̇-nī lê-kạ́ nyậng, nùng wȯ́ sż́-kā sż́ sà nyậng yà̇?”

John replied in the words of Isaiah the prophet, “I am the voice of one calling in the wilderness, ‘Make straight the way for the Lord.’”
Yǎ-höⁿ wȯ́ yü̂-sīn-h‘iọ̀-tǎ kạ́ nyậng Iī-lì̇-ā wȯ́-lá kạ́, wȯ́-lọ̆, “hwộng-yā ù̇-dông yạ̀̇ sāng-chí hàn-chì-lê lọ̆ wȯ́, siậ-họ̀-tsz̀ tsz̀ᵒᵒ-ká lu̇́, tí-kạ́ sāng-chí mě, siậ-ż́ ngò̇ yà̇. ”

Now the Pharisees who had been sent questioned him, “Why then do you baptize if you are not the Messiah, nor Elijah, nor the Prophet?”
Iī-lá mạ́̇ng-mạ́̇ng Yǎ-höⁿ lọ̆ wȯ́, “Sǎ-ż́ nùng fě-ż́ Kī-tǔ, fě-ż́ Iī-lì̇-ā, yà̇  fě-ż́  ī-ká yü̂-sīn h‘yọ̀-tǎ kạ́ nyậng, wė́-sà lọ̆ hâng sì-lì̇ nī?”

“I baptize with water,” John replied, “but among you stands one you do not know.
Yǎ-höⁿ wė́-dạ wȯ́, “sż́ ngò̇ tȧ́n-tsz̀ sz̀ lê lọ̆ hâng sì-lì̇”, “tǔ-ż́ nā tōng-tsūng yạ̀̇ yǐ-kạ́ nyậng, nā fě nyi̇́ng-tǎ ī.

He is the one who comes after me, the straps of whose sandals I am not worthy to untie.”
Sż́ ī mě lě-lá ngò̇ hạ́̇-dậ lê, tǔ-ż́ sě-ze lê-lá ngò̇ sīn-dậ kạ́, siậ-ż́ ī-kạ́ â-tá hǎ, ngò̇ fě kèⁿ t‘ǐ-ī kà lá lī.”










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